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The papers below are a sampling of some information on EM Technology® in Agricultural applications. EMRO Japan's website has several papers available online. However, most of the information, although all third party, on their site is mostly not peer-reviewed.

You may also wish to look at the following peer-reviewed papers available on separate servers. Research is being conducted in over 100 countries and is constantly being published, making it difficult to keep lists up to date. This is not a complete list of papers that have been published on EM Technology®. Many of these papers require purchasing and were found by doing searches online.

*Note on the reader. The latest versions of Firefox and Safari do not yet have a plugin for Acrobat. We are currently editing our website to carry the abstracts or full texts of papers to accommodate this. In the meantime, you can use Chrome to view the PDFs in these sections.

  1. Allahverdiyev, Surhay. Atik Atilla, Bayazit Sah Ismail, and Aida Sahmurova. Response on Photosystem II and Photosynthetic pigments to Salt and Baikal EM•1® in Tree Seedlings. African Journal of Biotechnology Vol 10 (4), pp. 535-538, 24 January, 2011.
  2. Bajwa, R., Javaid, A., Rabbani, N. 1999. EM® and VAM technology in Pakistan. Effect of organic amendments and EM® on VA mycorrhiza, nodulation and crop growth in Trifolium alexandrianum L. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences 2 :590–593.
  3. Bajwa, R., Javaid, A., Javaid, A. 2002. Effect of soil sterilization, organic amendments and EM® application on growth, yield and VA mycorrhizal colonization in maize. Pakistan Journal of Phytopathology 14 :62–67.
4. The effect of three organic pre-harvest treatments on Swiss chard ( Beta vulgaris L. var. cycla L.) quality

Nancy Daiss, M. Gloria Lobo, Ana R. Socorro, Ulrich Brückner, Joachim Heller and Monica Gonzalez

European Food Research and Technology

Volume 226, Number 3, 345-353, DOI: 10.1007/s00217-006-0543-2

5. Changes in Postharvest Quality of Swiss Chard Grown Using 3 Organic Preharvest Treatments

  1. N. Daiss,
  2. M.G. Lobo,
  3. M. Gonzalez

Article first published online: 10 JUL 2008

DOI: 10.1111/j.1750-3841.2008.00842.x

Journal of Food Science

Volume 73, Issue 6, pages S314–S320, August 2008

6. Can native tree species plantations in Panama compete with Teak plantations? An economic estimation

Verena C. Griess and Thomas Knoke.

7. Hui-Lian Xua; Ran Wangb; Md. Amin U. Mridhac. Effects of Organic Fertilizers and a Microbial Inoculant on Leaf Photosynthesis and Fruit Yield and Quality of Tomato Plants. Journal of Crop Production Vol 3, Issue 1. June 2001. Pp 173-182.

8. Hui-Lian Xu. Effects of a Microbial Inoculant and Organic Fertilizers on the Growth, Photosynthesis and Yield of Sweet Corn.

Journal of Crop Production. Vol. 3. Issue 1. June 2001. Pp 183-214.

9. Hussain, T, Javaid, T., Parr, J.F., Jilani, G., Haq, M.A. 1999. Rice and wheat production in Pakistan with Effective Microorganisms®. American Journal of Alternative Agriculture 14 :30–36.

10. Imai, S., Higa, T. 1994. Kyusei nature farming in Japan. Effect of EM® on growth and yield of spinach. In: Proceedings of 2 nd International Conference on Kyusei Nature Farming, Brazil, Oct. 7–11, 1991, pp. 92–96.

11. Imran, Muhammad., Khan, Ahmad, and Zia, Munir Hussain. "Use of Integrated Approaches to Manage Inferior Soil and Water Resources For Rice Production." Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences 3 (6) 1062-1065, 2000. Copyright by Capricorn Publications, 2000.

12. A Javaid. Foliar application of effective microorganisms on pea as an alternative fertilizer

13. - Agronomy for Sustainable Development, 2006 -

14. A. Javaid. Growth, nodulation and yield of black gram [Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper] as influenced by biofertilizers and soil amendments. African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 8 (21), pp. 5711-5717, 2 November, 2009. Available online at ISSN 1684–5315 © 2009 Academic Journals

15. A Javaid. Beneficial Microorganisms for Sustainable Agriculture. Book Title: Genetic Engineering, Biofertilisation, Soil Quality and Organic Farming. Series: Sustainable Agriculture Reviews. 2010. Vol 4, Pp 347-369.

16. Javaid, A. 2006. Foliar application of Effective Microorganisms® on pea as an alternative fertilizer. Agronomy for Sustainable Development 26 :257–262.


17. Javaid, A., Bajwa, R., Ahmad, Q., Rabbani, N. 1997. Effect of EM® application on growth, yield, nodulation and nitrogen nutrition in pea ( Pisum sativum L.) in heat sterilized and unsterilized soil. Science International (Lahore) 9 :307–309.

18. Javaid, A., Anjum, T., Bajwa, R. 2002. EM® and VAM technology in Pakistan. XII. Growth, nodulation and VA mycorrhizal response of Phaseolus vulgaris to long-term EM® application. Pakistan Journal of Phytopathology 14 :57–61.

19. Arshad Javaid1* Effects of Biofertilizers Combined with Different Soil Amendments on Potted Rice Plants

20. Khaliq, A., Abbasi, M.K., Hussain, T. 2006. Effect of integrated use of organic and inorganic nutrient sources with Effective Microorganisms® (EM®) on seed cotton yield in Pakistan. Bioresource Technology 97 :967–972.

21. Y KUJIRA, Y YAMADA, T SATO, T . Effect of Organic Farming of Rice with Bokashi-Fertilizer on the Root System, Bleeding Sap, Yield, Yield Components and Grain Quality. Hokuriku Crop …, 2000 -

22. LWIN, MYINT AND S.L. RANAMUKHAARACHCHI. Development of Biological Control of Ralstonia solanacearum Through Antagonistic Microbial Populations. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURE & BIOLOGY. Vol. 8, No. 5, 2006. Pp. 657-660.

23. AEF DM, SA Mohamed, OM Ismail. Effect of Biostimulants, Ethrel, Boron and Potassium Nutrient on Fruit Quality of" Costata" Persimmon Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 2(4): 1432-1437, 2008.

24. Montserrat Aulinas Maso ́, August Bonmat ́ı Blasi *. Evaluation of composting as a strategy for managing organic wastes from a municipal market in Nicaragua. Bioresource Technology 99 (2008) 5120–5124.


27. N Okayamakennosose . Effects of" bokashi" treatment or heat treatment on the nitrogen mineralization of rapeseed meal.(Agricultural Experiment Station, Okayama Prefectural General …Nogy Sogo Senta Nogyo Shikenjo Shiken…, 2001 -

28. SXTMJ Ping, C Weiling. Effect of EM Bokashi application on control of secondary soil salinization 水科学与水工程, 2008 - 万方数据源系

29. Sahain, M.F.M., Elham Z., Abd E.M., Shiekh, M.H.E., and Hagagg, L.F. Effect Of Some Biostimulant On Growth And fruiting Of Anna Apple Trees In Newly Reclaimed Areas. Research Journal of Agriculture and Biological Sciences, 3(5): 422-429, 2007.

30. S Vetayasuporn. Effect of Dried-grass Fermented Fertilizer on Growth and Yield of Chinese Kale (Brassicaoleracea) Production.- Research Journal of Agriculture and Biological …, 2009 -

31. R Wang, HL Xu, MAU Mridha. Phytophthora resistance of organically-fertilized tomato plants. Journal of crop production, 2001-

32. Kengo Yamadaa; Hui-Lian Xua. Properties and Applications of an Organic Fertilizer Inoculated with Effective Microorganisms® . Journal of Crop Production. Vol. 3. Issue 1. June 2001. Pp 255-268.

33. Yan, P.S., Xu, H.L. 2002. Influence of EM® Bokashi on nodulation, physiological characters and yield of peanut in nature farming fields. Journal of Sustainable Agriculture 19: 105–112.