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Impact of Effective Microorganisms® in Shrimp Culture Using Different Concentrations of Brackish Water


S Pongdit, *T. W. Thongkaew EMRO (Thailand) Co., ltd., Monririn Bldg. 3F Soi Sailom Phahonyothin Rd. Bangkok , Thailand
* Chaiyapruek shrimp farm, Songklong subdistrict, Bangpakong district, Chachoengsao province

Abstract
The cultivation of black tiger shrimps in Thailand is a popular enterprise due to its export potential. Effective Microorganisms (EM) has been used in this system for the production of shrimp under organic conditions. The use of different concentrations of brackish water had no impact on growth due to the use of EM. The water quality was maintained, and yields of shrimps were high. The potential of this technology for shrimp culture is presented.

Keywords: brackish water, water quality, yield

Introduction
Shrimp farming in Thailand has become a multi-billion dollar industry and a major export enterprise. Today, Thailand is the world’s leading exporter and the largest producer of black tiger prawn (Direk et al., 1998). Studying the impact of EM technology for shrimp farming in water with different levels of salinity is a new aspect in organic shrimp production, as it is safe for both producers and consumers. Therefore, a project was initiated to ascertain the impact of EM in producing organic shrimps with EM Technology.

Materials and methods
The study was conducted on two farms. The first was the Chaiyapruek Shrimp Farm located in Chachoengsao Province, where the salinity of water ranges between 0 – 2 ppt. The second was the Laemsing Shrimp Farm located in Chantaburi Province, whose water salinity was 20 - 22 ppt.

Extended EM, Bokashi and EM5 were applied to the ponds during preparation and also during culturing until harvest. Garlic extract with EM5 was mixed with feed before feeding once a day. Banana extract with extended EM was mixed with feed before feeding the other meals (2 – 4 times) each day.

Water of the two ponds was tested for BOD, COD, NH3, P, coliform, pH, and salinity in either ponds were done according to the following schedule: one day prior to releasing shrimps into the ponds (seeding), 60 days and 90 days after seeding respectively. The fresh weight of shrimps was also measured after harvest. Feed amount and EM consumption were calculated together with the whole costs, yields, income and profit.

Results and discussion
The principal water quality parameters for shrimp farms are dissolved oxygen, pH and the concentration of ammonia (Direk, 1998 mentioned to Funge-Smith and Briggs, 1995). Quality of water of the two farms was not significantly different before and after seeding. The levels of ammonia, BOD, COD and phosphorus were low and the pH and coliform counts were at acceptable ranges (Table 1 and Table 2). These results suggest that EM can control the quality of water at various levels of water salinity. The shrimps were very healthy, had fewer odours and free from diseases. The cost of production was low as EM is cheap (Table 3 and Table 4) and the use of EM produced lower Feed Conversion Ratios (Table 5). Farmers were also able to save costs expended for chemicals, which were approximately 90,000 baht per 5 rai pond or 0.8 ha pond. (Suwat, 1997). The use of EM made it possible to harvest three crops of shrimps per year without changing the water .In contrast, general conventional shrimp farmers could harvest shrimps only once or two times per year, with necessary changes in water (Direk et al., 1998). Therefore, farmers who apply EM in shrimp culture could derive profits from every crop from both fresh water and saltwater (Table 4). Analyses of shrimps for antibiotic residues illustrated the absence of any residues (Table 6). This indicated the organic nature of shrimps produced with EM. The potential of producing organic shrimps with EM was clearly evident from this study.

Table 1. The comparison of BOD, COD, NH3, P, Coliform, pH and Salinity of EM pond at the Chaiyapruek shrimp farm: prior to shrimp launching, Day 60, and Day 90 after launching of shrimps.
Parameter Pre-launching
D60
D90 Units
BOD
13.33
18.00

23.00
mg/L

COD
164.33
224.66
178.00

mg/L

NH3
Not detected

Not detected

Not detected

P
2.06
4.23
2.90

mg/L

Coliform
833.33
346.66
433.33
MNP/100L


pH (1100-1200 hrs)
8.16
8.13

7.82


Salinity
2.00

1.30

1.00
ppt


Table 2 The comparison of BOD, COD, NH3, P, coliform, pH and salinity of EM pond at the Laemsing Shrimp Farm : prior to shrimp launching, Day 60, and Day 90 after launching of shrimps.
Parameter Pre-launching D60 D90 Unit
BOD
9.30
12.00
-
mg/L
COD
48.66
64.33
-
mg/L
NH3
Not detected
Not detected
-
-
P
0.20
0.53
-
mg/L
Coliform
966.66
500.00
-
MNP/100L
pH
7.83
8.10
-

Salinity
21.00
22.00
-
ppt

Table 3 The comparison of cost between the Chaiyapruek and Laemsing Shrimp Farms.
Parameter Cost/Baht USD ($)



Chaiyauek (300,000 seeds)

Laemsing (200,000 seeds)

Seed prawns
45,000
1,046.51
30,000
697.67
Bokashi
14,500
337.21
8,500
197.67
EM
6,800
158.14
4,896
113.80
EM5
16,250
377.91
9,000
209.30
Banana
2,500
58.14
2,000
46.51
Garlic
1,000
23.26
800
18.60
Feed
65,280
1,518.14
59,400
1,381.40
Workers
9,000
209.30
6,000
139.53
Petrol
25,000
581.40
10,000
232.56
Electricity
1,500
34.88
1,000
23.26
Total
186,830
4,344.88
131,596
3,060.37


Table 4 The comparison of cost, yield, income and profit between Chaiyapruek and Laemsing Farms
Parameter
Chaiyauek Farm
Laemsing Farm


Baht
USD Baht USD
Cost (baht)
186,830 4,344.88
131,596
3,060.37
Yield (kg)
1,700

1,500

Income (baht)
595,000
13,837.21
225,000
5,232.56
Profit (baht)
408,170
9,492.33
93,404
2,1725.19


Table 5 The comparison of FCR (Feed Conversion Ratio) between Chaiyapruek and Laemsing Shrimp Farms.
Parameter Chaiyauek Farm Laemsing Farm
No. of shrimp seed /m2
37.5 41.8
Total feed/ crop (kg)
2,176 1,980
Total Yield (kg)
1,700 1,500
No. of prawn /kg
40 70
FCR 1.28 1.32


Table 6 Results of anti- biotic accumulation analyses
Type of aquatic animal
Method of analysis

Result

Microbiological Assay HPLC Oxolinic acid (ppm)
Black Tiger prawn Not detected Not detected Passed
Basis of judging: “Passed” means there is no anti-biotic accumulation by microbiological assay and > 0.05 ppm of oxolinic acid by HPLC method.

Conclusion
Shrimp farming with EM application in different levels and kinds of water salinity could control the quality of water such as pH, ammonia and phosphate etc. even though the water is not exchanged throughout the crop. This result suggests that it has a positive impact on the environment. The input cost is lower, so farmers can get more profit. The production of shrimp farming with EM is organic shrimp.

Acknowledgement
This study was conducted with the support of Prof. Dr. Teruo Higa, EMRO Headquaters, and APNAN’s senior technical officer and staff. I would like to express my gratitude to the owners of Chaiyapruek shrimp farm and Laemsing shrimp farm for their cooperation and assistance in studying the results of EM in the farms. These results could guide others who would like to produce organic shrimp.

References
Chalor Limsuwan (2000).” Black tiger prawn culture of the new decade,” Thai Shrimp: 260 .

Direk Patmasiriwat et al. (1998). The Shrimp Aquaculture Sector in Thailand: A review of Economic, Environmental and Trade Issue.: 35.

Kriangsak Poonsuk et al. (2001). “Biotechnology for black tiger prawn culture,” Rimbo Journal, Vol. 30, (February) : 22-23.

Songsak Sriboonjit (2001).” Situation of Thai shrimp in the world,” Shrimp culture newsletter, Vol. 150, (January):: 3-4.

Suwat Nindum (1997). “Black tiger prawn culture with EM application,” Kaset Kyusei Journal, Vol. 23, (October-December) : 58-62.

Tawatchai Suntikul (2000). “The matter of black tiger prawn,” Chaoban technology, Vol. 249, (October): : 63-64.

Tawatchai Suntikul (2000). “Do you know EM well?,” Aquatic Business Magazine, Vol. 13, (November): : 77-78.