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Application of EM•1® (Effective Microorganisms®) for Treatment of Diarrheic Disease in Piglets in Vietnam


Pham Knac Hieu and Bui Thi Tho
Department of Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology Hanoi Agricultural University, Gialani, Hanoi, Vietnam


Abstract :
A study was carried out to determine the effective mechanism and benefit of EM1 (Effective Microorganisms) on prevention and treatment of diarrheic disease in piglets caused by enteric pathogens in North Vietnam. It was found that EM1 inhibited E. coli, Salmonella, Klesiella, Shigella, Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Clostridium perfringens, including those that resisted various antibiotics. The anti-bacterial ability of EM1 was not lost by high temperature (1200C for 30 minutes) or after drying EM1 to form biomass. EM1 was successfully used for treatment of diarrhea in piglets due to complicated infection of enteric bacteria. It was equal in treatment effect to colistin. In addition, the growth of piglets after treatment with EM1 was not retarded as seen with antibiotics.

Introduction:
In Vietnam product EM1 (Effective Microorganisms) has been used in a number of fields. The present study was aimed to determine the anti-bacterial property of EM1 against several pathological bacteria and its effect on treatment of diarrhea in piglets in selected northern provinces of Vietnam.

Materials and Methods
Materials
• EM1 provided by APNAN
• Standard bacteria and bacteria isolated from the digestive tract of diseased piglets.
• Piglets suffering from diarrhea due to complicated enteric bacteria (E.coli, Salmonella, Proteus etc.)

Methods
• Evaluation of the anti-bacterial effect by improved method of volatilization according to Jokin (1977) and the improved method of diffusion in gel with columns according to Heasley (1964).
• Treatment of diseased piglets with EM1 (1ml/kg liveweight) in comparison with colistin.

Results and Discussion
Anti-bacterial Effects of EM1 Based on Tokin’s Method of Volatilisation
As can be seen from Table 1, EM1 inhibited the tested bateria, regardless of Gram negative or positive, aerobic or anaerobic, including those resistant to many antibiotics and those producing H2S, NH3 and Indol. At a dose of 4 ml the tested bacteria were partially inhibited (+) and at 10ml the bacteria were totally inhibited. (+++). In the control using distilled water and water with pH of 3.5 (similar to that of EM1) the bacteria grew well without any inhibition(-).

Table 1. Evaluation of the Effect of EM1 on Inhibition of Pathological Bacteria
Bacteria
EM1 Dose


Control (10ml)


4ml

10ml
Distilled

water with




water

pH 3.5
E. coli*
+

+++
-

-
Salmonella*
+

+++
-

-
Klebsiella
+

+++
-

-
Shigella
+

+++
-

-
Proteus
+

+++
-

-
Staphylococcus
+

+++
-

-
Streptococcus
+

+++
-

-
Clos. pefrigens
+

+++
-

-
Notes : * Each was tested on 4 strains: 1 standard strain, 2 isolates highly sensitive to antibiotics, 1 strain resistant to Ncomycin, Nitrofurantonin, Streptomicin. Olcandomycin, Polimycin, Erythromysin

Antibiogram of EM1 Based on the Improved Method of Heasley

Table 2. Antibiogram of EM1
Bacteria Diameter of
Non-bacteria
Circle (mm)
of 0.4ml
EM1/
Column

Fresh
Tyndal
at 120ºC
Setz
Biomass
Water with


Steaming
/30min
Filtration
Form
pH 3.5
E. coli* 25.0
24.5
25.0
24.5
17.5
0
Salmonella* 27.0
27.5
27.5
26.0
19.0
0
Klebsiella 26.0
26.5
26.0
26.5
18.
0
Shigella 29.0
27.5
27.5
26.0
18.5
0
Proteus 25.0
27.0
26.0
27.0
19.0
0
Staphylococcus 23.0
24.0
25.0
24.0
17.5
0
Streptococcus 24.0
25.0
24.0
26.0
18.0
0
Clos. pefrigens 24.0
23.5
24.0
22.0
21.0
0
Notes: as for Table 1

Table 2 shows that EM1 has a strong inhibiting effect on the tested bacteria. These were the cause of complicated bacterial disorder in the diarrheic syndrome in piglets in Vietnam. It can also be seen that the anti-bacterial effect of EM1 was not lost due to high temperature (120 ̊C/30 min) or filtration, but somewhat decreased after drying at a high temperature (80 ̊C for 18-20 h) to produce a biomass form.

Results of Treatment of Diarrhea with EM1

Table 3. Composition of Diarrhea Treatment Effects of EM1 and Colistin
Piglet age
(days)
EM1
EM1
EM1
EM1
Colstin
Colstin Colstin Colstin

No. of treated piglets
No of recovered piglets
Rate of success (%)
Live weight (Kg/head)
No. of treated piglets
No. of recovered piglets
Rate of success (%) Live weight (Kg/head)
1-7 47
45
95.7
1.23
30
27
90.0
1.27
8-14
33
26
78.7
-
40
34
85.0
-
15-21
40
32
80.0
-
30
25
83.3
-
22-30
35
30
85.7
6.89
41
35
85.3
6.35

Conclusions

It can be seen from Table 3 that EM1 was as effective as Colistin in treatment of diarrhea in piglets. In addition, after recovery the piglets given EM1 had higher growth rates compared to those receiving colistin.

Product EM1 is inhibiting to many types of pathological bacteria, including gram positive and negative bacteria, drug resistant bacteria, aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, and producing gases (H 2S, NH 3, Indol.).

This product is especially effective for treatment of enteric bacteria causing infectious complication leading to diarrhea in piglets in Vietnam; therefore use of this product can result in high effectiveness in treatment of diarrhea.

References
Jokin, L. 1977. Cited in Nguyen Dye Minh. Anti-bacterial Ability of Medical Herbs in Vietnam. Medical Publishing House, Hanoi.
Heasley, J. 1964. Cited from Tu Quoc Quan. Antibiotics. People’s Sanitary Publishing House. Beijing.