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Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences 3 (4):  694-698, 2000.
© Copyright by the Capricorn Publications, 2000.

EM and VAM Technology in Pakistan IX:  Effect of EM Application on Growth, Yield, and Nodulation and VA Mycorrhizal Colonization in Vigna radiata (L.) Wiczek
Arshad Javaid, Rukhsana Bajwa, Nusrat Rabbani and Malika Uzma
Department of Botany, University of the Punjab, Quaid-e-Azam Campus Lahore, Pakistan

Abstract
A variable response of crop growth, nodulation and VAM colonization to EM (effective microorganisms) application was observed when Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek was grown in farmyard manure (FYM) and Trifolium green manure (GM) amended soils with different histories of application.  In soil 1 EM application was started six months prior to soil 2.  Shoot growth was enhanced due to EM application in GM amended soil 1 but suppressed in soil 2 with either organic amendment.  Root biomass was increased by EM application in FYM but reduced in GM amended soils.  EM reduced pod dry biomass in soil 1 but enhanced in FYM amended soil 2.  Irrespective of the soil type and organic amendment, nodulation was enhanced by EM application at vegetative growth stage.  VAM colonization showed a positive response to EM application in both the soils.  The response of crop growth was independent of the response of nodulation and VAM colonization to EM.