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Using an Effective Microorganism Supplementation in Layers

Sasitorn Chotisasitorn, Somchai Chantsavang, Seksom Attamangkune, Attawoot Plaiboon
KASETSART JOURNAL: NATURAL SCIENCE, Volume 031, Issue 3, Jul 97 - Sep 97, Page 363 - 367

For full article, visit: http://research.rdi.ku.ac.th/world/kjournal.php?journalid=4&articleid=1741&webLang=en


Keywords: layer, effective microorganism, calcium, specific gravity.

Abstract
An experiment was conducted to study the effects of supplementation of EM ( effective microorganism ) in feed on laying performance and egg quality. A 2x3 Factorial in Completely Randomized Design with 4 replications, using the total numbers of 288 layers was utilized. In one factor, supplementation and non-supplementation of EM were applied. In the other factor, supplementation of calcium at levels of 3, 3.5 and 4% were used. Results of the study, over the 3 period, 28 days per period revealed that there were no significant effects of supplementation of EM on daily feed intake, body weight gain, mortality, egg mass, egg weight, albumin weight, yolk weight, egg shell weight, yolk color and haugh unit (P>0.05). But egg production (P<0.05), feed per 1 dozen egg and specific gravity were highly significant difference (P<0.01).
Key words: layer, effective microorganism, calcium, specific gravity

INTRODUCTION

Several reports in the literature have been found pertaining to the influence of microorganism on animals for high efficiency in animal production. Probiotic is used for feed supplementation. Males and Johnson (1990) defined the term "probiotic" to be used for life encouragement by microorganisms. They are living cells and by-products from microbial fermentation. The types of probiotics range from pure culture such as Lactobacillus acidophillus or mixture fermentation such as a mixed culture of organisms of fungi and bacteria or fungi and yeasts or other combinations in which the components are quite unrelated. (Hesseltine, 1991)
EM ( effective microorganism) is the mixed cell culture composed of photosynthetic bacteria, actinomyces, yeast, Lactobacillus and fungi (Higa, 1993) Chantsavang et al. (1993) reported the effects of EM supplemented in drinking water and feed of Japanese quails that there was no significant effect of EM on growth, feed efficiency and mortality rate of growing quails and laying period (4-12 wks) but there was significant effect in egg quality trait and high content of crude protein in manure. While research with Lactobacillus cultures has focused primarily on disease processes, Tortuero (1973) found that a Lactobacillus probiotic and zinc bacitracin had similar effects in stimulating weight gain and feed efficiency in broiler chicks. Chapman (1988) reported that the probiotic caused a distinct change in microbial flora of the ceaca and small intestine in that by nine days of age, enterococci had essentially disappeared. According to the similar results of enhanced gain and (or) efficiency of broilers in response to probiotic culture was reported by Crawford (1979) and Dilworth and Day (1978).
Yeast culture is considered to use for enhanced feed utilization. Martin (1995) reported that using of Lacto-Sacc (Alltech) 1 kg/t in broiler decreased 6.4% female mortality and 23.5% male mortality. Egg production (per hen day) in the period was improved from 59.9% to 63%. Layer should get optimum calcium at level 3.6 g/hen/day or 3.5% in feed. This experiment was conducted to determine the effects of Effective Microorganisms supplementation in layer feed which would have any beneficial effects on productive performance.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

The experiment was conducted in during 3 periods, each lasting 28 days with a total of 288 Isa Brown Layers, approximately 70 weeks of age. A 2 x 3 factorial in Completely Randomized Design with 4 replications (twelve individually cages hens per replicate) was used.
In one factor, supplementation and non-supplementation of 1% EM were applied. In the other factor, supplementation of calcium at the levels of 3, 3.5, and 4% were used. All birds were fed with the diets (Table 1) and water ad libitum throughout the entire study. Daily feed intake, feed per 1 dozen egg, mortality, body weight gain, and egg production were determined. Egg mass, specific gravity, albumen weight, yolk weight, yolk color, haugh unit, egg shell weight, and egg shell thickness were collected from a 3-day egg sample taken from each replication at the end of each 28-day period. Natural light was supplemented with artificial light in the morning and afternoon to provide a 16-hr photopenod. The treatments were as follows:
Treatment 1: 3% of calcium level in feed and 1% of EM supplementation
Treatment 2: 2% of calcium level in feed
Treatment 3: 3.5% of calcium level in feed and 1% of EM supplementation
Treatment 4: 3.5% of calcium level in feed
Treatment 5: 4% of calcium level in feed and 1% of EM supplementation
Treatment 6: 4% of calcium level in feed
Data was subjected to an analysis of variance through the Statistic Analysis System procedures (SAS, 1988).

TABLE 1 Composition of diets for layers

Ingredient Treatment 1,2
%
Treatment 3,4
%
Treatment 5,6
%
Yellow corn
54.17 55.43 56.79
Solv. extracted rice bran
11.05 7.63 4.00
Soybean meal
20.98 21.83 22.73
Fish meal (58%) 5.00 5.00 5.00
Oystershell
6.50 7.77 9.05
Dicalcium phosphate (p/18)
0.55 0.59 0.68
Salt
0.25 0.25 0.25
Vegetable oil
1.00 1.00 1.00
Vitamin premix
0.50 0.50 0.50
Total
100
100
100
Calculated Analysis



Crude Protein
18.00
18.00 18.00
ME (kcal/kg)
2800.34 2800.04 2800.46
Calcium 3.00 3.50 4.00
Available phosphorus
0.38 0.37 0.37
Lysine
0.97 0.98 0.98
Methionine+Cystine
0.62 0.61 0.61
Tryptophan 0.21 0.21 0.21
Threonine
0.69 0.70 0.70


RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

The data is presented in Table 2 and 3. Results showed that there were no significant difference on daily feed intake, body weight gain and mortality (P>0.05) in supplementation and non-supplementation of EM in any level of calcium.

Similar report of Miles et al. (1981) found that there were no significant differences in feed consumption, egg production and mortality in adding a Lactobacillus culture to the diet of Bobwhite quail breeds. Damron et al. (1981) also reported that 625 mg/kg of Probios (a mixed Lactobacillus culture) in turkey hen's feed did not significantly affect egg production, daily feed intake, specific gravity of eggs, or body weight. Miles et al. (1981) remarked that the addition of the Lactobacillus culture at a level of 0.625 g/kg feed in bobwhite quail breeders had no significant influence on feed consumption, egg production, fertility, hatchability of fertile eggs and mortality.

However, it was found that there was a highly significant difference (P <0.01) in feed per dozen egg by 3% calcium level consumed feed more than 3.5% and 4% calcium level respectively and there was interaction between 1st factor and 2nd factor in feed. 3.5% calcium level without EM supplementation (T4) had significant difference (P<0.05) in egg production (%) therefore EM did not affect calcium utilization in feed for production.

Table 2 Effect of EM supplementation in feed at different calcium levels on layers


Characteristics 3.0% Ca
3.0% Ca
3.5% Ca
3.5% Ca
4.0% Ca
4.0 % Ca

EM
no EM
EM no EM
EM no EM
Daily feed intake (g/b)
109.775 108.133 108.954 108. 133
109.778 109.939
Feed per dozen egg (kg)
1.616a 1.564abc 1.542bdc 1.49d 1.517dc 1.608ab
Body weight gain (g)
0.107
0.14 0.168 0.102 0.178 0.177
Hen day production (%)
82.244z 83.209yz 84.524xyz 87.203x 86.286xy 83.603yz
Mortality
0.694
0
0.694
0
0.694
1.388

abc: Mean values on the same row with common superscripts are highly different at (P<0.01)
xyz: Mean values on the same row with common superscripts are different at (P<0.05)


Table 3 Effect of EM supplementation in feed at different calcium levels on egg quality

Characteristics 3.0% Ca
3.0% Ca
3.5% Ca
3.5% Ca
4.0% Ca 4.0% Ca

EM no EM
EM no EM
EM no EM
Egg mass (g)
51.089 51.737 53.302 53.461 53.763 52.168
Egg weight (g)
62.12 62.165 63.023 61.660 62.299 62.369
Egg shell weight (g)
5.613 5.580 5.715 5.634 5.795 5.722
Yolk color
7.444 7.68 7.751 7.668 7.764 7.653
Haugh unit
87.174
87.474
85.239
85.388
84.251
83.254
Specific gravity
1.086c
1.085d
1.087bc
1.087bc
1.088a
1.088ab


abcd: Mean values on the same row with common superscripts are highly statistically different (P<0.01)


Table 3 shows no significant effects (P>0.05) on egg mass, egg weight, albumen weight, yolk weight, egg shell weight, yolk color, haugh unit in every treatment, which was similar to the report of Boonyoung et al. (1995) who also found that there were no difference in egg mass, egg weight, albumen weight, yolk weight, egg shell weight, egg shell thickness, yolk color, haugh unit and specific gravity in EM supplement in drinking water of layers.

In the variation of calcium levels at 3%, 3.5% and 4% Table 3 shows specific gravity values vary to calcium levels. 3.5% calcium level had the highest specific gravity value (P<0.01). Although in this experiment, layers were raised during summer season, egg production did not decrease. It may be because of evaporation housing system. The temperature in house was about 27oC and good condition for raising layers. The layers fed with 3% calcium produced egg (P<0.05) with thinner egg shell weight (P>0.05)

CONCLUSION

1. There were no significant differences on daily feed intake, weight gain, mortality, egg mass, egg weight and yolk weight in layers at 3%, 3.5% and 4% calcium levels.

2. There were highly significant differences on feed per dozen egg and specific gravity (P<0.01), egg production (P<0.05).

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The authors are grateful to Poultry Research and Development Center, Kasetart University Research and Development Institute for financial support, Agriculture Center of Kusae Saraburi for EM support.

LITERATURE CITED

Boonyoung, M., S. Chotisasitorn, O. Pum-in, S. Attmangkul, and S. Chantsavang. 1995. The effect of E.M. microorganism supplementation in drinking water on layer's performance and egg quality, pp. 134-140. In the 33rd Kasetsart University Annual Conference, Bangkok.
Chantsavang, S., C. Sinralchatanun, K.A. Yuwat, and P. Sirirote. 1991. Application of Effective Microorganism for Pig Waste Treatment. National Swine Research and Training Center, Kasetsart University, Bangkok.
Chapman, J.D. 1988. Probiotics, Acidifers and Yeast Culture: A Place for Natural Additives in pig and poultry production, pp. 219-233. In Biotechnology the Feed Industry. Alltech Technical Publications. Kentucky.
Crawford, J.S. 1979. Probiotics in animal nutrition, p. 45. In Proceedings of Arkansas Nutrition Conference, Fayetteville, Arkansas.
Damron, B.L., H.R. Wilson, R.A. Voitle, and R.H. Harmas, 1981. A mixed lactobacillus culture in the diet of broad breasted large white Turkey Hens. Poultry Sci. 60: 1350-1351.
Dilworth, B.C. and E.J. Day. 1978. Lactobacillus cultures in broiler diets. Poultry Sci. 57: 1101.
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Miles, R.D., H.R. Wilson, and D.R. Ingram. 1981. Productive performance of bobwhite quail breeders fed a diet containing a lactobacillus culture. Poultry Sci. 60: 1581-1582
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Tortuero, F. 1973. Influence of Lactobacillus acidophillus in chicks on the growth, feed conversion, malabsorption of fats syndrome and intestinal flor. Poultry Sci. 52: 197-203.