It gets really cool when you start to look at what each one of these does. And, with the help of Google, it doesn't take too long to not only find out what each microbes produces, but also what each metabolite does. Most of these compounds have been researched pretty heavily so finding the info is pretty easy. Here are just a few examples from Wikipedia:
Esterase (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Esterase) is a hydrolase enzyme that splits esters into an acid and an alcohol in a chemical reaction with water called hydrolysis. A wide range of different esterases exist that differ in their substrate specificity, their protein structure, and their biological function.
alpha-Galactosidase (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alpha-galactosidase) This enzyme is a homodimeric glycoprotein that hydrolyses the terminal alpha-galactosyl moieties from glycolipids and glycoproteins. It predominantly hydrolyzes ceramide trihexoside, and it can catalyze the hydrolysis of melibiose into galactose and glucose.
alpha-Fucosidase (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alpha-L-fucosidase) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction
- an alpha-L-fucoside + H2O L-fucose + an alcohol