We have posted several third party research papers on EM Technology® for your convenience. This is not an exhaustive list of the papers that have been published on EM®. Since its introduction in 1982, there have been well over 600 peer reviewed papers covering all sorts of applicaitons. These papers are owned by the authors and most are available for purchase through various websites. Google Scholar is the best source for finding papers as they are being published all the time around the world.
EM Technology® has been around for over 30 years. EM Research Organization, the owner of EM Technology®, maintains an online database of research papers (peer reviewed and not) that contains over 300 papers in English for public download.
The papers below are a sampling of some information on EM Technology® applications in Healthy Living. For a full database of research papers on Effective Microorganisms®, please visit EMRO Japan's website.
The papers below on EM-X are available through various databases. Most links are to abstracts. Full papers are available for purchase through each owner of the paper. This list is not comprehensive.
The antioxidant drink effective microorganism-X (EM-X) pre-treatment attenuates the loss of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons in 6-hydroxydopamine-lesion rat model of Parkinson's disease.
Datla KP1, Bennett RD, Zbarsky V, Ke B, Liang YF, Higa T, Bahorun T, Aruoma OI, Dexter DT.
J Pharm Pharmacol. 2004 May;56(5):649-54.
Antiangiogenic activity of a concentrated effective microorganism fermentation extract.
Chui CH1, Gambari R, Lau FY, Hau DK, Wong RS, Cheng GY, Kok SH, Higa T, Ke B, Chan AS, Fong DW, Tang JC.
Int J Mol Med. 2006 Nov;18(5):975-9.
Modulation of experimental osteoporosis in rats by the antioxidant beverage effective microorganism-X (EM-X).
Ke B, Xu Z, Ling Y, Qiu W, Xu Y, Higa T, Aruoma OI.
Biomed Pharmacother. 2009 Feb;63(2):114-9. doi: 10.1016/j.biopha.2008.03.008. Epub 2008 Apr 16.
Effective microorganism fermentation extract (EM-X) attenuates airway hyperreactivity and inflammation through selective inhibition of the TH2 response independently of antioxidant activity.
Do JS, Seo HJ, Hwang JK, Kim JH, Nam SY.
Int J Mol Med. 2007 Oct;20(4):631-5.
Apoptotic potential of the concentrated effective microorganism fermentation extract on human cancer cells.
Chui CH, Hau DK, Lau FY, Cheng GY, Wong RS, Gambari R, Kok SH, Lai KB, Teo IT, Leung TW, Higa T, Ke B, Tang JC, Fong DW, Chan AS.
Int J Mol Med. 2006 Feb;17(2):279-84.
Evaluation of the toxicity and safety of the antioxidant beverage effective microorganisms-X (EM-X) in animal models.
Ke B, Liang YF, Zhong ZX, Higa T, Aruoma OI.
Environ Toxicol Pharmacol. 2005 Sep;20(2):313-20. doi: 10.1016/j.etap.2005.03.001.
Growth inhibitory potential of effective microorganism fermentation extract (EM-X) on cancer cells.
Chui CH, Cheng GY, Ke B, Lau FY, Wong RS, Kok SH, Fatima S, Cheung F, Cheng CH, Chan AS, Tang JC.
Int J Mol Med. 2004 Nov;14(5):925-9.
The antioxidant cocktail, effective microorganism X (EM-X), protects retinal neurons in rats against N-methyl-D-aspartate excitotoxicity in vivo.
Aruoma OI, Moncaster JA, Walsh DT, Gentleman SM, Ke B, Liang YF, Higa T, Jen LS.
Free Radic Res. 2003 Jan;37(1):91-7.
Assessment of the ability of the antioxidant cocktail-derived from fermentation of plants with effective microorganisms (EM-X) to modulate oxidative damage in the kidney and liver of rats in vivo: studies upon the profile of poly- and mono-unsaturated fatty acids.
Aruoma OI, Deiana M, Rosa A, Casu V, Piga R, Peccagnini S, Dessi MA, Ke B, Liang YF, Higa T.
Toxicol Lett. 2002 Oct 5;135(3):209-17.
The antioxidant cocktail effective microorganism X (EM-X) inhibits oxidant-induced interleukin-8 release and the peroxidation of phospholipids in vitro.
Deiana M, Dessi MA, Ke B, Liang YF, Higa T, Gilmour PS, Jen LS, Rahman I, Aruoma OI.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2002 Sep 6;296(5):1148-51.
The papers at the links below are a sampling of some information on EM Technology® in Environmental applications. For a full database of research papers on Effective Microorganisms®, please visit EMRO Japan's website.
The papers below are a sampling of some information on EM Technology® in Agricultural applications. EMRO Japan's website has several papers available online. However, most of the information, although all third party, on their site is mostly not peer-reviewed.